Author named in a signal phrase:
As Fanderclai (2001) observed, older siblings play an important role in the development of language and learning skills.
Chavez (2003) noted that “six years after slim cigarettes for women were introduced, more than twice as many teenage girls were smoking” (p. 13).
Author named in a parenthetical reference:
One study found that 17% of adopted children in the United States are of a different race than their adoptive parents (Peterson, 2003).
Babcock and Laschever (2003) have suggested that many women do not negotiate their salaries and pay raises as vigorously as their male counterparts do.
A recent study has suggested that many women do not negotiate their salaries and pay raises as vigorously as their male counterparts do (Babcock and Laschever, 2003).
Three to five authors:
Safer, Voccola, Hurd, and Goodwin (2003) reached somewhat different conclusions by designing a study that was less dependent on subjective judgment than were previous studies.
Based on the results, Safer et al. (2003) determined that the apes took significant steps toward self-expression.
Six or more authors:
As Soleim et al. (2002) demonstrated, advertising holds the potential for distorting and manipulating “free-willed” consumers.
Organization as author:
First citation – (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2003)
All later citations – (CDC, 2003)
The employment profiles for this time period substantiated this trend (Federal Employment, 2001).
Two or more authors with the same last name:
S. Bartolomeo (2000) conducted the groundbreaking study on teenage childbearing.
Two or more sources in one parenthetical reference:
List sources by different authors in alphabetical order by author’s last names, separated by semicolons: (Cardone, 1998; Lai, 2002). List works by the same author in chronological order, separated by commas: (Lai, 2000,2002).
Specific parts of a source:
Mogolov (2003, chap. 9) argued that his research yielded the opposite results.
Email and other personal communication:
R. Tobin (personal communication, November 4, 2003) supported his claims about music therapy with new evidence.
Web site or web text:
Zomkowski argued the importance of “ensuring equitable access to the Internet” (2003, p.3).
APA for Content Notes
Superscript numeral in text:
The age of the children involved was an important factor in the selection of items for the questionnaire. 
Marjorie Youngston Forman and William Cole of the Child Study Team provided great assistance in identifying appropriate items for the questionnaire.
APA for List of References
Lightman, A.P. (2002). The diagnosis. New York: Vintage Books.
Two or more authors:
Walsh, M.E., & Murphy, J.A. (2003). Children, health, and learning: A guide to
the issues. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Organization as author:
Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, National Research Council. (2002). Abrupt
climate change: Inevitable surprises. Washington, DC: National Academies
National Geographic atlas of the Middle East. (2003). Washington, DC: National
Dickens, J. (Ed.). (1995). Family outing: A guide for parents of gays, lesbians and
bisexuals. London: Peter Owen.
Selection in a book with an editor:
Burke, W.W., & Nourmair, D.A. (2001). The role of personality assessment in
organization development. In J. Waclawski & A.H. Church (Eds.),
Organization development: A data-driven approach to organizational
change (pp. 55-77). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Al-Farabi, A.N. (1998). On the perfect state (R. Walzer, Trans.). Chicago: Kazi.
Edition other than the first:
Moore, G.S. (2002). Living with the earth: Concepts in environmental health
science (2nd ed.). New York: Lewis.
One volume of a multivolume work:
Barnes, J. (Ed.). (1995). Complete works of Aristotle (Vol. 2). Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press.
Article in a reference work:
Dean, C. (1994). Jaws and teeth. In The Cambridge encyclopedia of human
evolution (pp. 56-59). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Piaget, J. (1952). The language and thought of the child. London: Routledge &
Kegan Paul. (Original work published 1932).
Two or more works by the same author(s):
Goodall, J. (1999). Reason for hope: A spiritual journey. New York: Warner Books.
Goodall, J. (2002). Performance and evolution in the age of Darwin: Out of the
natural order. New York: Routledge.
Article in a journal paginated by volume:
O’Connell, D.C., & Kowal, S. (2003). Psycholinguistics: A half-century of
monologism. The American Journal of Psychology, 116, 191-212.
Article in a journal paginated by issue:
Hall, R.E. (2000). Marriage as vehicle of racism among women of color. Psychology:
A Journal of Human Behavior, 37(2), 29-40.
Article in a magazine:
Ricciardi, S. (2003, August 5). Enabling the mobile work force. PC Magazine, 22,
Article in a newspaper:
Faler, B. (2003, August 29). Primary colors: Race and fundraising. The Washington
Post, p. A5.
Editorial or letter to the editor:
Zelneck, B. (2003, July 18). Serving the public at public universities [Letter to the
editor]. The Chronicle Review, p. B18.
Annual meeting announcement. (2003, March). Cognitive Psychology, 46, 227.
Ringel, S. (2003). [Review of the book Multiculturalism and the therapeutic process].
Clinical Social Work Journal, 31, 212-213.
Smith, H. (2002, October). [Interview with A. Thompson]. The Sun, pp. 4-7.
Two or more works by the same author in the same year:
Shermer, M. (2002a). On estimating the lifetime of civilizations. Scientific American,
Shermer, M. (2002b). Readers who question evolution. Scientific American, 287(1),
Chapter or section of a web site:
Talking about your choices. (2001). Partnership for caring. Retrieved January 15,
2004, from http://www.partnershipforcaring.org/HomePage/
DotComSense: Commonsense ways to protect your privacy and assess online
mental health information. (2000, January). APA Monitor, 31, 32.
Retrieved January 25, 2001, from http://helping.apa.org/dotcomsense/
Article in an online periodical:
Steedman, M., & Jones, G.P. (2000). Information structure and the syntax-
phonology interface [Electronic version]. Linguistic Inquiry, 31, 649-689.
Palmer, K.S. (2000, September 12). In academia, males under a microscope.
The Washington Post. Retrieved January 23, 2001, from http://www.
Article or abstract from a database:
Crook, S. (2003). Change, uncertainty and the future of sociology. Journal of
Sociology, 39(1), 7-14. Retrieved January 10, 2004, from Expanded
Academic ASAP database (A101260213).
Hayhoe, G. (2001). The long and winding road: Technology’s future. Technical
Communication, 48(2), 133-145. Retrieved September 22, 2001, from
Email message or real-time communication:
Cite these sources in your text as forms of personal communication.
Wittenberg, E. (2001, July 11). Gender and the Internet [Msg 4]. Message
Posted to new://comp.edu.composition
Troike, R.C. (2001, June 21). Buttercups and primroses [Msg 8]. Message
posted to the American Dialect Society’s electronic mailing list, archived
Software or computer program:
PsychMate [Computer software]. (2003). Pittsburgh, PA: Psychology Software
Office of the Federal Register. (2003). The United States government manual
2003/2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Public Health Service. (1999). The surgeon general’s call to action to prevent
suicide. Retrieved November 5, 2003, from http://www.mentalhealth.org/
Bandelj, N. (2003). Embedded economies: Foreign direct investment in Central
and Eastern Europe (Doctoral dissertation, Princeton University, 2003).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (03), 1083. (UMI No. 3085036)
Technical or research report:
McCool, R., Fikes, R., & McGuinnes, D. (2003). Semantic web tools for enhanced
authoring (Report No. KSL-03-07). Stanford, CA: Knowledge Systems
Paper presented at a meeting or symposium, unpublished:
Jones, J.G. (1999, February). Mental health intervention in mass casualty
disasters. Paper presented at the Rocky Mountain Region Disaster Mental
Health Conference, Laramie, WY.
Barnes Young, L.L. (2003, August). Cognition, aging, and dementia. Poster
session presented at the 2003 Division 40 APA Convention, Toronto,
Film, video or DVD:
Moore, M. (Director). (2003). Bowling for Columbine [Motion picture]. United
Television program, single episode:
Imperioli, M. (Writer), & Buscemi, S. (Director). (2002). Everybody hurts [Television
Series episode]. In D. Chase (Executive Producer), The Sopranos. New York:
Home Box Office.
The Avalanches, (2001). Frontier psychiatrist. On Since I left you [CD]. Los
Angeles: Elektra/Asylum Records.