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APA Citations

Author named in a signal phrase:

As Fanderclai (2001) observed, older siblings play an important role in the development of language and learning skills.

Chavez (2003) noted that “six years after slim cigarettes for women were introduced, more than twice as many teenage girls were smoking” (p. 13).

Author named in a parenthetical reference:

One study found that 17% of adopted children in the United States are of a different race than their adoptive parents (Peterson, 2003).

Two authors:

Babcock and Laschever (2003) have suggested that many women do not negotiate their salaries and pay raises as vigorously as their male counterparts do.

A recent study has suggested that many women do not negotiate their salaries and pay raises as vigorously as their male counterparts do (Babcock and Laschever, 2003).

Three to five authors:

Safer, Voccola, Hurd, and Goodwin (2003) reached somewhat different conclusions by designing a study that was less dependent on subjective judgment than were previous studies.

Based on the results, Safer et al. (2003) determined that the apes took significant steps toward self-expression.

Six or more authors:

As Soleim et al. (2002) demonstrated, advertising holds the potential for distorting and manipulating “free-willed” consumers.

Organization as author:

First citation – (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2003)

All later citations – (CDC, 2003)

Unknown author:

The employment profiles for this time period substantiated this trend (Federal Employment, 2001).

Two or more authors with the same last name:

S. Bartolomeo (2000) conducted the groundbreaking study on teenage childbearing.

Two or more sources in one parenthetical reference:

List sources by different authors in alphabetical order by author’s last names, separated by semicolons: (Cardone, 1998; Lai, 2002). List works by the same author in chronological order, separated by commas: (Lai, 2000,2002).

Specific parts of a source:

Mogolov (2003, chap. 9) argued that his research yielded the opposite results.

Email and other personal communication:

R. Tobin (personal communication, November 4, 2003) supported his claims about music therapy with new evidence.

Web site or web text:

Zomkowski argued the importance of “ensuring equitable access to the Internet” (2003, p.3).


APA for Content Notes


Superscript numeral in text:

The age of the children involved was an important factor in the selection of items for the questionnaire. [1]

[2]Marjorie Youngston Forman and William Cole of the Child Study Team provided great assistance in identifying appropriate items for the questionnaire.


APA for List of References




One author:

Lightman, A.P. (2002). The diagnosis. New York: Vintage Books.

Two or more authors:

Walsh, M.E., & Murphy, J.A. (2003). Children, health, and learning: A guide to

            the issues. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Organization as author:

Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, National Research Council. (2002). Abrupt

            climate change: Inevitable surprises. Washington, DC: National Academies


Unknown author:

National Geographic atlas of the Middle East. (2003). Washington, DC: National

            Geographic Society.


Dickens, J. (Ed.). (1995). Family outing: A guide for parents of gays, lesbians and

            bisexuals. London: Peter Owen.

Selection in a book with an editor:

Burke, W.W., & Nourmair, D.A. (2001). The role of personality assessment in

            organization development. In J. Waclawski & A.H. Church (Eds.),

            Organization development: A data-driven approach to organizational

            change (pp. 55-77). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 


Al-Farabi, A.N. (1998). On the perfect state (R. Walzer, Trans.). Chicago: Kazi.

Edition other than the first:

Moore, G.S. (2002). Living with the earth: Concepts in environmental health

            science (2nd ed.). New York: Lewis.

One volume of a multivolume work:

Barnes, J. (Ed.). (1995). Complete works of Aristotle (Vol. 2). Princeton, NJ:

            Princeton University Press.

Article in a reference work:

Dean, C. (1994). Jaws and teeth. In The Cambridge encyclopedia of human

            evolution (pp. 56-59). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.


Piaget, J. (1952). The language and thought of the child. London: Routledge &

            Kegan Paul. (Original work published 1932).  

Two or more works by the same author(s):

Goodall, J. (1999). Reason for hope: A spiritual journey. New York: Warner Books.

Goodall, J. (2002). Performance and evolution in the age of Darwin: Out of the

            natural order. New York: Routledge.


Article in a journal paginated by volume:

O’Connell, D.C., & Kowal, S. (2003). Psycholinguistics: A half-century of

            monologism. The American Journal of Psychology, 116, 191-212.

Article in a journal paginated by issue:

Hall, R.E. (2000). Marriage as vehicle of racism among women of color. Psychology:

            A Journal of Human Behavior, 37(2), 29-40.

Article in a magazine:

Ricciardi, S. (2003, August 5). Enabling the mobile work force. PC Magazine, 22,


Article in a newspaper:

Faler, B. (2003, August 29). Primary colors: Race and fundraising. The Washington

            Post, p. A5.

Editorial or letter to the editor:

Zelneck, B. (2003, July 18). Serving the public at public universities [Letter to the

            editor]. The Chronicle Review, p. B18.

Unsigned article:

Annual meeting announcement. (2003, March). Cognitive Psychology, 46, 227.


Ringel, S. (2003). [Review of the book Multiculturalism and the therapeutic process].

            Clinical Social Work Journal, 31, 212-213.

Published interview:

Smith, H. (2002, October). [Interview with A. Thompson]. The Sun, pp. 4-7. 

Two or more works by the same author in the same year:

Shermer, M. (2002a). On estimating the lifetime of civilizations. Scientific American,

            287(2), 33.

Shermer, M. (2002b). Readers who question evolution. Scientific American, 287(1),


Electronic Sources

Chapter or section of a web site:

Talking about your choices. (2001). Partnership for caring. Retrieved January 15,

            2004, from

DotComSense: Commonsense ways to protect your privacy and assess online

            mental health information. (2000, January). APA Monitor, 31, 32.

            Retrieved January 25, 2001, from

Article in an online periodical:

Steedman, M., &  Jones, G.P. (2000). Information structure and the syntax-

            phonology interface [Electronic version]. Linguistic Inquiry, 31, 649-689.

Palmer, K.S. (2000, September 12). In academia, males under a microscope.

            The Washington Post. Retrieved January 23, 2001, from http://www.


Article or abstract from a database:

Crook, S. (2003). Change, uncertainty and the future of sociology. Journal of

            Sociology, 39(1), 7-14. Retrieved January 10, 2004, from Expanded

            Academic ASAP database (A101260213).

Hayhoe, G. (2001). The long and winding road: Technology’s future. Technical

            Communication, 48(2), 133-145. Retrieved September 22, 2001, from

            ProQuest database.

Email message or real-time communication:

Cite these sources in your text as forms of personal communication.

Online posting:

Wittenberg, E. (2001, July 11). Gender and the Internet [Msg 4]. Message

            Posted to new://


Troike, R.C. (2001, June 21). Buttercups and primroses [Msg 8]. Message

            posted to the American Dialect Society’s electronic mailing list, archived


Software or computer program:

PsychMate [Computer software]. (2003). Pittsburgh, PA: Psychology Software


Other Sources

Government document:

Office of the Federal Register. (2003). The United States government manual

            2003/2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


U.S. Public Health Service. (1999). The surgeon general’s call to action to prevent

            suicide. Retrieved November 5, 2003, from


Dissertation abstract:

Bandelj, N. (2003). Embedded economies: Foreign direct investment in Central

            and Eastern Europe (Doctoral dissertation, Princeton University, 2003).

            Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (03), 1083. (UMI No. 3085036)

Technical or research report:

McCool, R., Fikes, R., & McGuinnes, D. (2003). Semantic web tools for enhanced

            authoring (Report No. KSL-03-07). Stanford, CA: Knowledge Systems


Paper presented at a meeting or symposium, unpublished:

Jones, J.G. (1999, February). Mental health intervention in mass casualty

            disasters. Paper presented at the Rocky Mountain Region Disaster Mental

            Health Conference, Laramie, WY.

Poster session:

Barnes Young, L.L. (2003, August). Cognition, aging, and dementia. Poster

            session presented at the 2003 Division 40 APA Convention, Toronto,

            Ontario, Canada.

Film, video or DVD:

Moore, M. (Director). (2003). Bowling for Columbine [Motion picture]. United

            States: MGM.

Television program, single episode:

Imperioli, M. (Writer), & Buscemi, S. (Director). (2002). Everybody hurts [Television

            Series episode]. In D. Chase (Executive Producer), The Sopranos. New York:

            Home Box Office.


The Avalanches, (2001). Frontier psychiatrist. On Since I left you [CD]. Los

            Angeles: Elektra/Asylum Records.